Model Author TL;DR Takeaways
Hooked Model Nir Eyal Hooked Model

A hook has four parts:
1) Trigger: External & Internal. Need to shift from external to internal triggers over time.
2) Action: Similar to Fogg Behavior Model -> Motivation and Ability relative to Trigger. Simplicity is a function of your scarcest resource in that moment.
3) (Variable) Reward: Three types – tribe (social), hunt (resources), and self (achievement).
4) Investment: Use to 1) Load the next trigger; and 2) Store value to improve the product with use (e.g., content, data, followers, reputation). Leverages reciprocity and cognitive dissonance.

Behavior Change Matrix Nir Eyal Behavior Change Matrix

Let’s say you want to change a specific behavior either in yourself or in someone else, such as a customer or user. The first step is to understand what kind of behavior you’re dealing with. Once you know the behavior type, you can reference techniques for creating the behavior you’re designing.

An amateur is a person who has an automatic, internal trigger to do a pleasurable behavior requiring relatively little willpower. Amateur habits include many of the behaviors most people do regularly as part of their daily routines.

An expert is a person who develops an automatic response—sometimes referred to as muscle memory or pattern recognition—that requires a high degree of self-control.

An addict will go to great lengths to satiate a nearly uncontrollable desire. Addicts often display self-destructive behaviors in pursuit of their urges. Addiction is characterized by a neurological response, which requires a tremendous amount of willpower to decouple from the stimulus.

Like the addict, the habitué is a person with an automatic response intended to alleviate pain. In both cases, the addict and the habitué wish to relieve the painful stress of desire. However, unlike the addict, the habitué requires relatively little willpower to resist the automatic behavior.

Fogg Behavior Model BJ Fogg, PhD Fogg Behavior Model

Three elements of behavior change: Motivation, Ability, Trigger
1) Motivation: Pleasure / Pain; Hope / Fear; Social Acceptance / Rejection
2) Ability: Time, Money, Physical Effort, Brain Cycles, Social Deviance, Non-Routine
3) Triggers: Facilitator, Spark, Signal

Fogg Method BJ Fogg, PhD Three steps: Get Specific, Make It Easy, Trigger The Behavior
1) Get Specific: Translate target outcomes and goals into behaviors
2) Make It Easy: Simplicity changes behavior
3) Trigger The Behavior: No behavior happens without a trigger
Habit Loop Charles Duhigg Duhigg Habit Loop

The habit process within our brains is a three step loop:
1) Cue – A trigger tells our brains to go into auto pilot and which habit to use.
2) Routine – The actual habit that we act out (physical or mental or emotions).
3) Reward – Helps our brain figure out if this routine is worth remembering for the future.

Craving – Habits create neurological cravings, which power the habit loop. As we associate cues with certain rewards, a subconscious craving emerges in our brains that starts the habit loop spinning. When the cue occurs, we start anticipating the reward, so if we don’t do the routine we’ll feel disappointed. The habit only truly emerges once you begin craving/expecting the reward after you experience the cue.
For more details, see my reduction of Duhigg’s The Power of Habit.

Habit Formation Strategies Gretchen Rubin Self-Knowledge: Know your tendency and distinctions.

Pillars of Habits: Monitoring, Foundation, Scheduling, and Accountability.

The Best Time to Begin: First Steps, Clean Slate, and Lightning Bolt.

Desire, Ease, and Excuses: Abstaining, Convenience, Inconvenience, Safeguards, Loophole-Spotting, Distraction, Reward, Treats, and Pairing.

Unique, Just Like Everyone Else: Clarity, Identity, and Other People.

Health Belief Model (HBM) U.S. Public Health Service Health Belief Model

Six key concepts:
1) Perceived Susceptibility – One’s opinion of chances of getting a condition. Application: Define population(s) at risk, risk levels; personalize risk based on a person’s features or behavior; heighten perceived susceptibility if too low.
2) Perceived Severity – One’s opinion of how serious a condition and its consequences are. Application: Specify consequences of the risk and the condition.
3) Perceived Benefits – One’s belief in the efficacy of the advised action to reduce risk or seriousness of impact. Application: Define action to take; how, where, when; clarify the positive effects to be expected.
4) Perceived Barriers – One’s opinion of the tangible and psychological costs of the advised action. Application: Identify and reduce barriers through reassurance, incentives, assistance.
5) Cues to Action – Strategies to activate “readiness”. Application: Provide how-to information, promote awareness, reminders.
6) Self-Efficacy – Confidence in one’s ability to take action. Application: Provide training, guidance in performing action.

Transtheoretical Model Of Health Behavior Change Prochaska and DiClemente Transtheoretical Model

Processes of Change

Health behavior change involves progress through six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. Ten processes of change have been identified for producing progress along with decisional balance, self-efficacy, and temptations. Basic research has generated a rule of thumb for at-risk populations: 40% in precontemplation, 40% in contemplation, and 20% in preparation.

Social Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory

When people observe a model performing a behavior and the consequences of that behavior, they remember the sequence of events and use this information to guide subsequent behaviors. Observing a model can also prompt the viewer to engage in behavior they already learned

The Social-Ecological Model Urie Bronfenbrenner Social Ecological Model

In order to understand human development, the entire ecological system in which growth occurs needs to be taken into account.